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Macam-macam Text dalam bahasa Inggris

Written By ZUHRY YUDHA YUANA PUTRA on Selasa, 05 Maret 2013 | 04.35.00

Text Report menguras suatu hasil pengamatan, penelaahan, penelitian, observasi, atau studi tentang benda, binatang, orang, atau tempat participant pada Report cendrung general. Data yang tersaji umumnya berupa simpulan umum akan karakteristik, ciri dan atau keberadaan dan keadaan participant.

Tujuan text Report adalah untuk menggambarkan participant apa adanya bila yang di bicarakan suatu benda. Text Report lebih menyoroti fungsi dari benda tersebut

Text Repot lazimnya menyodorkan suatu generalisasi akan participant yang di ulas, generalisasi ini umumnya di dapat lewat membandingkan yang satu dengan yang lain yang tergolong participant yang sejenis.

Structure of Text Report
General Classification : Pernyataan umum yang menerangkan subjek laporan, keterangan dan klarifikasinya
Description : Penginformasian Ciri-ciri umum/generalisasi yang dimiliki subjek misalnya sifat, pesikologis, prilaku, tampilan fisik, fitur khas, kualitas dan sejenisnya

Grammatical Feature
a. focus on Generic Participants
b. use of relational processes to state what is and what which it is
c. use a simple past tense
d. no temporal sequences





Example

Title Different Types of Sea Mammals
General classification
Seals, sea lion and walruses live both on land and in the sea. When on dry land or on ice, They are every clumsy in their movements. But in the water they swim gracefully. They all leave the water for land or ice fields to give birth to their young.
Description The dolphins are larger. These animals are mainly fish eaters. Experiments show that dolphins are intelligent and can communicate with each other. They can be trained to perform various kinds of tricks and acts.
The highly intelligent killer where whale belongs to the dolphins family. Despite of its scary name, it has never been heard to attack human.

ANALYTICAL
Text Exposition bertujuan untuk menyodorkan pendapat/ide/pendapat/argumen penulis akan suatu perkara/topik/permasalahan/fenomena. Terdapat dua fariasi dalam Text Exposition.
1. Analytical Exposition
Dalam Analytical Exposition penulis menyodorkan pandangan/ide/opini/pendapat. Suatu topik atau fenomena atau masalah perjudapat perhatian, ulasan atau penjelasan atau uraian atau data penguat. Tanpa dimunculkannya usaha untuk mempengaruhi/membujuk pembaca untuk memiliki sikap pro-kontra terhadap sesuatu. Analytical Exposition juga dikenal dengan istilah Argumentative.
Generic structure of Analytical Exposition
Thesis : Pernyataan pendapat penulis akan sesuatu kasus/fenomena
Argument : Terdiri dari poin atau inti masalah/perbandingan atau hal yang menjadi concern dan elaboration. Penjelasan atau pemaparan dari point.
Reiteration : Penguatan pernyataan

Unsur Kebahasaan yang digunakan Text Analytical Exposition

General noun misilnya pollution, car
Abstract noun misalnya policy, government
Jargon misalnya species, mammal
Modals misalnya must, should
Bahasa evaluative misalnya important, valuable
Kalimat passive

2. Hortatory Exposition
Text Hortatory Exposition bertujuan untuk menyodorkan pandangan/ide/opini/pendapat untuk mempengaruhi/membujuk pembaca untuk memiliki sikap pro-kontra terhadap sesuatu dan atau mengajak pembaca untuk melakukan sesuatu. Hortatory Exposition juga dikenal dengan istilah Persuasive

Generic structure of hortatory Exposition
Thesis : pernyataan pendapat penulis akan suatu kasus/fenomena atau issue hal yang dipersoalkan
Argument : alasan mengapa ada keprihatinan dan pengaruh pada saran atau rekomendasi
Re-Commendation : pernyataan tentang bagai mana seharusnya atau tidak seharusnya sesuatu ada atau dilakukan.

Unsur Kebahasaan Text Hortatory Exposition
Abstract noun misalnya polisi, government
Jargon misalnya species, mammal
Modals misalnya must, should
Bahasa evaluatif misalnya important, valuable
Kalimat passive
Thinking verb misalnya I believe, I think


Example
Analytical Exposition
Thesis
In Australia there are three levels of government, the federal government. All of there levels of government are necessary. This is so for a number of reasons.
Argument
First, the federal government is necessary for the big things. They keep the economy in order and look after things like defense. Similarly, the state governments look after the middle-sized things. For example they look after low and order, preventing things like vandalism in schools. Finally, local governments look after the small things. They look after things like collecting rubbish, otherwise everyone would have diseases.
Reiteration
Thus, for the reasons above we can conclude that the three levels of government are necessary.

Hortatory Exposition
Thesis In all the discussion over he removal of lead from petrol (and the atmosphere) there doesn't teem to have been any mention of the difference between driving in the city and the country.
Argument While I realize my leaded petrol car is polluting the air wherever I drive, I feel that when you travel through the county, where you only see another car very five to ten minutes, the problem is not as severe as when traffic is concentrated on city roads.
Those who want to penalize older, leaded petrol vehicles and their owners don't seen to appreciate that, in the country, there is no public transport to fall back upon and one's own vehicle is the only way to get about.
Re-commendation I feel that country people, who often have to travel huge distances to the nearest town and who already spend a spec deal of money on petrol, should be treated differently to the people who live.

ADJECTIVE CLAUSE (KATA SIFAT)
1. Who : Bersifat kata orang {she, he}
2. Whom : Bersifat kata orang {me, you, her, him, than, us, it}
3. Whose : Bersifat kata orang {her, his, my, your, our, their, its}
4. Which : Bersifat kata benda {me, you, her, their, us, it}
Example
Who
I thanked the woman. She helped me
I thanked the woman. Who helped me
Whom
The man was Mr. Jones. I saw him
The man whom was Mr. Jones I raw
the people were very nice. We visited than yesterday
the people were very nice. Whom we visited yesterday
Whose
I apologized the woman. I spelled her coffee
I apologized the woman Whose I spelled coffee
I know the man His bicycle was stolen
I know the man Whose bicycle was stolen
Which
the book was good. I red it
the book which I red was good
the move wasn't very good. We say it last night
the move wasn't very good which we say last night.






EXPRESSION GIVING AND ASK FOR OPINION

Asking for opinion
1. What do you think for/if...
2. Do you think...
3. What's your opinion about...
4. What your idea about...
Giving for opinion
1. In myopinion abaut...
2. I think...
3. in myview...
4. I assume...
Example
What's your opinion about mrs.Dini?
In myopinion about mrs.Dini is beautiful, she is have high body and in studying she is very explicit. He student late go to school, she give a punishment which hard.
EXPRESSION OF LOVE & SADNES


The Expression of love :
I love son much
I love you, baby
I do care about you
I really care about you
I like you, honey
You are my love, sweetheart
My dear, I always think about you

The expression of sadness :
I am feeding so sad
I am really sad
Please make leaved me alone
It’s the sadness day in my live
You make me sad




AGREEMENT AND DISAGREEMENT
Merupakan untuk menunjukan sikap atau posisi seseorang penutur akan suatu masalah/pendapat/situasi.
Enquiring about (mencari tahu pendapat)
Wouldn't you agree ( that )...?
Wouldn't you say (that)...?
Don't you think (that)...?
Expressing agreement (menyatakan persetujuan)
I agree (with you)
You are right
That' right
I know
Absolutely
Defenetely
Expressing disagreement (menyatakan tidak persetujuan)
I disagree
I don't agree
I am not sure (about that)
I don't know (about that)
I am cann't agree

EXPRESSIONS OF ANGER/BE ANGER
go away:
I have you:
Shouth your mounth:
Example
X: I will go away because I'm anger some you
Y: I'm sorry, I must make you anger




CONDITIONAL
Pola conditional merupakan bentuk kalimat pengandaian dengan ciri hadirnya kata jika/apabila, yang umumnya dinyatakan dangan kata IF. Terdapat dua kategori besar pola pengandaian yakni : The real (factual dan nabiutral) dan unreal (centrary to the fact).
The real conditional yang lebih dikenal dengan istilah future conditional, merupakan pola lamunan yang menyatakan sesuatu memiliki peluang untuk terjadi bila syarat tertentu terpenuhi selanjutnya disebut conditional type 1.
Type unreal merupakan pola lamunan yang merupakan pengingkaran dari fakta sebenarnya akan terjadi atau sedang terjadi sekarang yang lebih dikenal dengan present conditional atau conditional type 2.
Dan kedua lamunan yang berkontradiksi dengan yang sebenarnya sudah terjadi yang lebih dikenal dengan past conditional atau conditional type 3.

1. Future Conditional (Conditional Type 1)
Pengandaian ini menyatakan sesuatu mungkin terjadi pada waktu mendatang atau sekarang, jika syarat atau kondisi tertentu terpenuhi. Conditional type 1 dibentuk oleh rangkaian simple present sebagai sub-clause dan simple future sebagai
main clause.
If + subject 1 + present + subject 2 + [will/can/may/must] + verb 1 (simple form)

Example
1. If you come with me for a jogride to night, you will have a great fun.
2. You must study hard, if you want to enter favorite university
"If" Pada pola diatas dapat dilesapkan / dihilangkan tanpa mengubah makna dengan mengubah structur polanya didalam bentuk inverse
Should + subject 1 + simple form + subject 2 + [will/can/may/must] + verb 1 (simple form)

Example
~ If you come with me for a jogride to night, you will have a gread fun
~ Should you want to enter favorite university, you must study hard

2. Present Conditional (Conditional Type 2)
Pengandaian ini menyatakan sesuatu yang bertentangan dengan apa yang ada / terjadi sekarang / belakangan ini.

If + subject 1 + simple past + subject 2 + [would / could / might] + verb 1 / be
Example
1. If I had time, I would go to the beach with you this week and
2. He would tell you about, it if he were here
"If" dengan menggunakan to be "were" pada pola diatas dapat dilesapkan / dihilangkan tanpa mengubah makna dengan mengubah structur polanya kedalam bentuk inversi.
Were +subject 1 + adjective + noun + subject 2 + [would / could / might] + verb / be

Example
~ Were I to have time, I would go to the beach with you this weekend
~ Were he here, he would tell you about it
3. Past Conditional (Conditional Type 3)
Pengandaian ini menyatakan sesuatu yang bertentangn dengan apa yang telah terjadi sesuatu yang sudah berlalu
If + subject 1 + past perfect + subject 2 + [would / could / might] + have + verb 3 / been
Example
1. If I had known you were there, I would have writen you a letter
2. If you had asked me I would, have told you the whole story
Bentuk inversi (tanpa menggunakan kata "if") untuk type ini adalah
Had + subject 1 + verb 3/been + subject 2 + [would/could/might] + have + verb 3/been

Example
~ Had I known you were there, I would have written you a letter
~ Had you asked me I would have told you the whole story


Example of Conditional
1. If I were in town, I would go
I do not were in town, pn i would not go
2. If I had known you were, I would come to have you.
I do not had known you were, so I would not came to have you.

SPOOF
Goal/purpose
Toretell/to tell funny story
The structures
Orientation : Pengenalan waktu,tokoh dan tempat.
Event : Kejadian.
Twist : Akhir yang tidak terduga atau lucu.
Keterangan
Dalam satu Sroof text, dapat terjadi beberapa event.
Example:
Tittel Penguin in the par
Orientation Once a man was walking in a park when he came a class a penguin.
Event 1
He took him to a policeman and said.” I have just Found this penguin what should ? Do?”
The policeman replied" take him to the zoo.
Event 2
The next day the policeman saw the some in the some park and the man was still carrying the penguin with him. The policeman was rather surprised and walked up to the man and asked. "Why are you still earring that penguin about ? Didn't you take it to the zoo" "I Certainly did" Repaired the man.
Twist
And it was great idea because he really enjoyed it so today I am taking him to the movies.

WOULD RATHER... (THAN), (WOULD) PREFER TO RATHER THAN PREFER SOME THINGT SOME THING.

'Would rather' mempunyai arti: Would prefer to ( lebih suka ).
Example
A- I would rather have ice cream than milk shake.
B- Would you rather have ice cream or milk shake?
C- I would prefer to have ice cream rather than milk shake
D- I would rather not have anything
E- Do you want to eat out? 'no I’d rather not'
F- I would prefer eat out rather than go/to go/going to the movies
Keterangan
1} Dalam kalimat Tanya kita menggunakan or untuk memperkenalkan suatu pilihan, sedangkan dalam kalimat pasif yang menggunakan would rather kita menggunakan than.
2} kita menggunakan rather than dengan would prefer + to invinitive.
3} Untuk kalimat negative. Kita menambahkan not setelah would rather/would prefer dan sebelum kata kerja utama sehingga kalimat
- I would rather not have ice cream
- I would prefer not to have ice cream
4} kita menggunakan
Would prefer + to infinitive + rather than + infinitive
Would prefer + to infinitive + rather than + to infinitive
would prefer + to infinitive + rather than +V ing(dalam contoh f diatas)
5} Kita mengatakan 'I’d rather not' sebagai jawaban pendek. kita menggunakan prefer dengan cara berikut
~ Prefer to + infinitive + rather than + infinitive/to infinitive/verb/ing
I prefer to swim rather than play/to play/playing basket ball
~ Prefer + verb + ing + to + verb + ing
I prefer swimming to playing basket ball
~ Prefer + verb + ing + rather than + verb + ing
I prefer swimming rather than playing basket ball
~ Prefer + something + to + something
I prefer tea to coffee
A} "Rather than" dalam kalimat diatas dapat diganti dengan instead of tetapi kata kerja yang mengikuti 'instead of' harus dalam bentuk Verb + ing
Example
I prefer to stay (at) home instead of going out
B} "rather than” dapat diikuti oleh infinitive, to infinitive atau verb + ing, tetapi penggunaannya lebih baik di sesuaikan dengan kata kerja sebelumnya
C} Jika kita lebih suka seseorang melakukan sesuatu kita menyatakannya dengan prefer : I prefer you to do it for me.
(Prefer + somebody + to + infinitive)
D} Dengan would rather (would rather + some body + the past form)
 - I'd rather you did it for me
- I'd rather you didn't smoke

ADVERB
A. Adverb of manner (kata keterangan cara)
Kata-kata yang termasuk kedalam adverb of manner diantaranya adalah :

Best : terbaik yang paling baik
Better : makin baik, lebih sehat, lebih suka
Calmly : dengan tenang
Carefully : dengan hati-hati, dengan teliti
Carelesly : dengan sembarangan, gegabah,tanpa tanggung jawab
Early : pagi-pagi
Fast : cepat
Faster : lebih cepat
Grandually : secara berangsur-angsur
Hard : keras, lebat, dengan tajam
Harder : lebih keras, lebih telat, dan lebih tajam
Hurrledly : terburu-buru, tergopoh-gopoh
Late: terlambat
Well: baik, jauh, benar



Example
a. I am Felling better today
b. She is best language spanis in the class
c. He driver carefully every where

B. Adverb of place (keterangan tempat)
Kata-kata yang termasuk kedalam adverb of place diantaranya:

Above : Diatas
Abroad : Luar negri, dengan luas, tersiar, tersebar
Below : Dibawah, kebawah
Down town : Kota
Far : Jauh
Gance : Dari sini
Here : Disini
In side : Kedalam
Near : Keluar, diluar
Thence : Dari Sana
There : Disana, disitu, kesana

Example
a. She lives above tree
b. They go to abroad every year
c. We go to down town

C. adverb of definite time (keterangan waktu yang jelas)
Kata-kata yang termasuk kedalam adverb of definite time diantaranya :

A few days Ag : Beberapa hari yang lalu
A few minute Ag : Beberapa saat yang lalu
At the moment : Sekarang ini
Farmerly : Dahulu, tadinya
In the past : Dimasa lalu
Last night : Tadi malam
Now : sekarang
Right now : sekarang ini juga
The other day : beberapa hari yang lalu, baru-baru ini
Tomorrow : besok
To nigh : malam ini
Yesterday : kemarin



Example
a. I met than a few days ago
b. They finished their work a few minute ago
c. I lived in bandung formerly

PRESENT PERFECT TENSE
Digunakan untuk menyatakan suatu perbuatan yang terjadi pada masa lalu dimasa waktu tidak tertentu (bentuk waktu selesai sekarang).
S + have/has + V3 + O

Keterangan
Have untuk subjek they, we, I, you
has untuk subjek she, he, it
Example
1. They have cathee this morning
2. Dedi has antihu pencil in the market.

Preference
Digunakan untuk menyatakan suatu perbandingan
….. like….. better than…..
….. prefer….. to …..
….. would rather….. than….

1. I like coffee batter than tea
(Suka ) (dari pada)
2. Eka prefer fried rice to fried noodle
(Lebih suka) (daripada)
3. siti would rather ice than milkshake
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